Gardner's theory of multiple intelligence (GDP)

01 октября 2022 г., 21:23

The book "Introduction to psychology". Authors - R. L. Atkinson, R. C. Atkinson, E. E. Smith, D. J. BEM, S. Nolen-Hoeksema. Under the General editorship of V. P. Zinchenko. 15th international edition, Saint Petersburg, Prime-euroznak, 2007. Article from Chapter 12. Individual differences

Howard Gardner (1983) developed his theory of multiple intelligence as a radical alternative to what he calls the "classical" view of intelligence as the ability to think logically.

Gardner was struck by the diversity of adult roles from different cultures — roles based on a wide variety of abilities and skills that are equally necessary for survival in their respective cultures. Based on his observations, he came to the conclusion that instead of a single basic intellectual ability, or "g factor", there are many different intellectual abilities that occur in different combinations. Gardner defines intelligence as "the ability to solve problems or create products based on specific cultural characteristics or social environment" (1993, p.15). It is the multiple nature of intelligence that allows people to assume such diverse roles as doctor, farmer, shaman, and dancer (Gardner, 1993a).

Gardner notes that intelligence is not a "thing", not a device located in the head, but "a potential that allows the individual to use forms of thinking that are appropriate to specific types of context" (Kornhaber & Gardner, 1991, p. 155). He believes that there are at least 6 different types of intelligence that do not depend on each other and act in the brain as independent systems (or modules), each according to its own rules. These include:

a) linguistic;

b) logical and mathematical;

c) spatial;

d) musical;

e) body-kinesthetic

f) personal modules.

The first three modules are familiar components of intelligence, and they are measured by standard intelligence tests. The last three, according to Gardner, deserve a similar status, but Western society has emphasized the first three types and virtually excluded the rest. These types of intelligence are described in more detail in the table:

Seven intellectual abilities according to Gardner
(adapted from: Gardner, Kornhaber & Wake, 1996)

  • Verbal intelligence — the ability to generate speech, including the mechanisms responsible for phonetic (speech sounds), syntactic (grammar), semantic (meaning) and pragmatic components of speech (use of speech in various situations).
  • Musical intelligence — the ability to generate, transmit, and understand the meanings associated with sounds, including the mechanisms responsible for the perception of pitch, rhythm, and timbre (quality characteristics) of sound.
  • Logical-mathematical intelligence — the ability to use and evaluate relationships between actions or objects when they are not actually present, i.e., to abstract thinking.
  • Spatial intelligence is the ability to perceive visual and spatial information, modify it, and recreate visual images without resorting to the original stimuli. Includes the ability to construct images in three dimensions, as well as mentally move and rotate these images.
  • Body-kinesthetic intelligence — the ability to use all parts of the body when solving problems or creating products; includes control over coarse and fine motor movements and the ability to manipulate external objects.
  • Intrapersonal intelligence — the ability to recognize your own feelings, intentions, and motives.
  • Interpersonal intelligence — the ability to recognize and distinguish between other people's feelings, views, and intentions.

In particular, Gardner argues that musical intelligence, including the ability to perceive pitch and rhythm, has been more important than logical-mathematical intelligence for most of human history. Body-kinesthetic intelligence includes control over one's body and the ability to manipulate objects expertly: examples include dancers, gymnasts, artisans, and neurosurgeons. Personal intelligence consists of two parts. Intrapersonal intelligence is the ability to monitor your feelings and emotions, distinguish them, and use this information to direct your actions. Interpersonal intelligence is the ability to notice and understand the needs and intentions of others and monitor their moods in order to predict their future behavior.

Gardner analyzes each type of intelligence from several perspectives: cognitive operations involved; the appearance of prodigies and other exceptional individuals; data on cases of brain damage; its manifestations in various cultures and the possible course of evolutionary development. For example, with certain brain injuries, one type of intelligence may be impaired, while others remain unaffected. Gardner notes that the abilities of adults of different cultures represent different combinations of various types of intelligence.

Although all normal individuals are more or less capable of displaying all varieties of intelligence, each individual is characterized by a unique combination of more or less developed intellectual abilities (Walters & Gardner, 1985), which explains the individual differences between people.

As we noted, regular IQ tests are good predictors of College grades, but they are less valid in predicting subsequent job success or career advancement. Measures of other abilities, such as personal intelligence, may help explain why some people who perform brilliantly in College become pathetic losers in later life, while less successful students become adoring leaders (Kornhaber, Krechevsky & Gardner, 1990). This is why Gardner and his colleagues call for an "intellectually objective" assessment of students ' abilities. This will allow children to demonstrate their abilities in ways other than using tests performed on a piece of paper, such as matching different elements together to demonstrate spatial imagination skills.

The theory of intelligence: the results

Despite these differences, all theories of intelligence share a number of common features. All of them try to take into account the biological basis of intelligence, Whether it is a basic processing mechanism or a set of multiple intellectual abilities, modules, or cognitive potentials. см.→

Other theories of intelligence

  • Anderson's theory of intelligence and cognitive development см.→
  • Sternberg's triarchic theory см.→
  • Bioecological theory of Ceci см.→

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